Titanium alloys including those with aluminium (Titanium-Aluminum Alloys (1955)), molybdenum (Titanium Molybdenum Alloys (1952)), and iron (Method For Preparing Titanium-Iron Alloy (2016)) are mainly used in aircraft, spacecraft and missiles because of their low density and extreme temperature resistance. They are also used in golf clubs (Titanium Alloy For Golf Club Face (2015)), laptops (Titanium Alloy Computer Machine Body Material And Preparation Method Thereof (2017)), and Bicycles (Preparation Method Of Titanium Alloy Bicycle Frame (2017)).
Because titanium and titanium alloys have excellent resistance to corrosion in seawater (Powder For Building Up Of Titanium Alloy Having Excellent Sea Water Resistance And Heat Resistance (1994)), they are used in desalination plants and to protect the hulls of ships, submarines and other structures exposed to seawater.
Titanium metal connects well with bone (Titanium Mesh Bone Prosthesis (1987)), so it has found surgical applications such as in joint replacements (especially hip joints) and tooth implants.
The largest use of titanium is in the form of titanium(IV) oxide. It is extensively used as a pigment in house paint, artists’ paint (Titanium Dioxide Pigment Slurries For Paint (1981)), plastics (Stabilizing aqueous titanium dioxide pigment slurries by blending therewith plastic particles (1977)), dental enamels (Adhesive Dimethacrylate Enriched With Nano-Structured Hydroxyapatite And Titanium Dioxide As An Aesthetic Coating For Dental Enamel (2017)), and paper (http://tinyurl.com/yxf86gaq).
Titanium(IV) oxide crystallises in two different structures:
- Titanium dioxide of the rutile crystal structure is used in sunscreens because it prevents UV light from reaching the skin (Sunscreen Compositions (1989)), while
- Titanium dioxide of the anatase crystal structure is a photocatalyst and can be used, for example, in degrading organic pollutants in water (Process Of Producing A Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalyst Used For Degradation Of Organic Pollutants (2014)).